BLACK, Hugo Lafayette (1886-1971)

BLACK, HUGO LAFAYETTE, a Senator from Alabama; born near Ashland, Clay County, Ala., February 27, 1886; attended the public schools and Ashland College, Ashland, Ala.; graduated from the law department of the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa in 1906; admitted to the Alabama bar the same year and commenced practice in Ashland, Ala.; moved to Birmingham, Ala., in 1907 and continued the practice of law; during the First World War served as a captain of the Eighty-first Field Artillery and as company regimental adjutant in the Nineteenth Artillery Brigade 1917-1918; police court judge in Birmingham, Ala.; prosecuting attorney of Jefferson County, Ala.; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1926; reelected in 1932 and served from March 4, 1927, until his resignation on August 19, 1937, having been appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court; chairman, Committee on Education and Labor (Seventy-fourth and Seventy-fifth Congresses); was confirmed by the Senate on August 17, 1937, took his seat as an Associate Justice on October 4, 1937 and served until his resignation on September 17, 1971, just days before his death in Bethesda, Md., on September 25, 1971; interment in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.

Alabama Department of Archives and History
Montgomery, AL
Papers: 1927-1961. 1 folder. Letter and biographical sketch (1927), letters (1931 and 1960-61), photographs, and memorabilia.
Additional Papers: Correspondence in State Democratic Executive Committee of Alabama records, 1875-1986; William Brockman Bankhead papers, 1875-1952; John Hollis Bankhead papers, 1880-1947; Charles B. Crow papers, 1920-1949; Durr family papers, 1868-1968; Judkins family papers, 1837-1968; Virginia Foster Durr papers, 1904-1991; and in the papers of Black's brother-in-law, Clifford J. Durr, 1899-1976.

Columbia University
Oral History Project
New York, NY
Oral History: Discussed in numerous interviews, including Virginia Foster Durr (1974), 377 leaves.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
New York, NY
Papers: Correspondence in the Joseph Dorfman papers, 1890-1983; Howard Selsam papers, [ca. 1935]-1972; Milton Handler papers, 1927-1970; and Edward C. Carter papers, 1851-1960. Finding aids.

Eleventh Circuit Historical Society
Atlanta, GA
Oral History: Video interview (1968) by M. Agronsky and E. Severeid, CBS News; and discussed in interview (ca. 1986) with Mrs. Hugo Black.

Harvard University
Law School Library
Cambridge, MA
Papers: In the Felix Frankfurter papers, 1900-1965 (bulk 1939-1962), available on microfilm, permission required; in Charles Edward Wyzanski papers, 1930-1968; and Zechariah Chafee papers, 1898-1957 (bulk 1916-1956). Finding aids.

Indiana University
Lilly Library
Bloomington, IN
Papers: Correspondence in Claude Gernade Bowers papers, 1893-1972. Finding aid.

Lyndon Baines Johnson Library
Austin, TX
Oral History: 1968. Closed.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division
Washington, DC
Papers: 1883-1976 (bulk 1926-1971). 130,000 items. Family and general correspondence, memoranda, reports, notebooks, research materials, case files, legal and subject files, speeches, writings, printed matierals, clippings, scrapbooks relating primarily to Black's service in the U.S. Senate (1927-1937) and on the Supreme Court (1937-1971). Finding aid. Restricted.
Additional Papers: Correspondence in John Archer Lejeune papers, 1915-1950; Charl Ormond Williams papers, 1924-1959; and correspondence, reports, speeches, printed matter, comprising office files kept by Grant while serving as secretary to Senator Black, in Hugh Gladney Grant papers, 1924-1933.

Radcliffe College
Schlesinger Library
Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Elizabeth Brandeis Raushenbush papers, 1920-1967.
Oral History: Discussed in interview with Virginia Foster Durr, (1974), 377 pages. U.S. Supreme Court Washington, DC
Papers: Miscellaneous material relating to Black's years as Supreme Court justice including clippings and articles, correspondence, press releases, addresses, photographs, portraits, and Black's personal library.

University of Alabama
W.S. Hoole Special Collections
Tuscaloosa, AL
Papers: Correspondence in Hudson Strode papers, 1916-1976.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Correspondence in the Frank Murphy papers, 1908-1949; George Murphy papers, 1911-1961; notes of conferences with Justice Frank Murphy in Eugene Gressman papers, 1935-1967; and in Eleanor M. Bumgardner papers, 1919-1967.
Oral History: 1964. 5 pages. Concerns Justice Frank Murphy.

University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Atkins Library
Charlotte, NC
Papers: Correspondence in Harry Golden papers, 1898-1970.

University of Vermont
Bailey/Howe Library
Burlington, VT
Papers: Correspondence in Alfred Harris Heininger papers, 1900-1970. Finding aid.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library
Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in various collections. Finding aid.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives
New Haven, CT
Papers: In the Max Lerner papers, 1927-1980; Jerome Frank papers, 1918-1972 (bulk 1929-1957); and Richard Kluger's Brown vs. Board of Education collection, 1950-1975. Finding aid.
Research Library Information Network In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: Hagley Museum and Library, Greenville DE; Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY; Syracuse University, Manuscripts Collections, Syracuse, NY; and University of Virginia Library, Charlottesville, VA.

  • Ball, Howard. Hugo L. Black: Cold Steel Warrior. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • ___. "Justice Hugo L. Black: A Magnificent Product of the South.'' Alabama Law Review 36 (Spring 1985): 791-834.
  • Berman, Daniel M. "Hugo L. Black: The Early Years.'' Catholic University Law Review 8 (May 1959): 103-16.
  • ___. "The Political Philosophy of Hugo L. Black.'' Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University, 1957.
  • Black, Hugo Lafayette. "The Bill of Rights.'' New York University Law Review 35 (April 1960): 865-81.
  • ___. A Constitutional Faith. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968.
  • ___. Mr. Justice and Mrs. Black: The Memoirs of Hugo L. Black and Elizabeth Black. New York: Random House, 1986.
  • ___. "The Lawyer and Individual Freedom.'' Tennessee Law Review 21 (December 1950): 461-71.
  • ___. "Reminiscences.'' Alabama Law Review 18 (Fall 1965): 3-11.
  • Black, Hugo, Jr. My Father, a Remembrance. New York: Random House, 1975.
  • Dilliard, Irving, ed. One Man's Stand for Freedom: Mr. Justice Black and the Bill of Rights: A Collection of his Supreme Court Opinions. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.
  • Dunne, Gerald T. Hugo Black and the Judicial Revolution. New York: Simon Schuster, 1977.
  • Durr, Clifford J. "Mr. Justice Black: A Personal Appraisal.'' Georgia Law Review 6 (Fall 1971): 1-16.
  • Frank, John Paul. "Hugo L. Black: Free Speech and the Declaration of Independence.'' University of Illinois Law Forum (1977): 577-620.
  • ___. Mr. Justice Black, the Man and His Opinions. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949.
  • Freyer, Tony Allen. Hugo L. Black and the Dilemma of American Liberalism. Edited by Oscar Handlin. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education, 1990.
  • ___, ed. Justice Hugo Black and Modern America. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990. Reprint of articles published in the Alabama Law Review 36 (Spring 1985) and 38 (Winter 1987).
  • Gregory, William A., and Rennard Strickland. "Hugo Black's Congressional Investigation of Lobbying and the Public Utilities Holding Company Act: A Historical View of the Power Trust, New Deal Politics, and Regulatory Propaganda.'' Oklahoma Law Review 29 (1976): 543-76.
  • Hamilton, Virginia Van der Veer. Hugo Black: The Alabama Years. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.
  • ___. "Lister Hill, Hugo Black, and the Albatross of Race.'' Alabama Law Review 36 (Spring 1985): 845-60.
  • ___, ed. Hugo Black and the Bill of Rights: Proceedings of the First Hugo Black Symposium in American History on "The Bill of Rights and American Democracy.'' University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1978.
  • Hulnick, Blake B. "Consumer Crusade: Justice Hugo Black as Senate Investigator." The Journal of Southern Legal History 24 (2016): 69-108.
  • Johnson, Nicholas. "Senator Black and the American Merchant Marine.'' UCLA Law Review 14 (January 1967): 399-427.
  • Lee, David D. "Senator Black's Investigation of the Airmail, 1933-1934.'' Historian 53 (Spring 1991): 423-42.
  • Meador, Daniel John. Mr. Justice Black and His Books. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974.
  • Murphy, Paul L. "The Early Social and Political Philosophy of Hugo Black: Liquor as a Test Case.'' Alabama Law Review 36 (Spring 1985): 861-79.
  • Newman, Roger K. Hugo Black. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.
  • Shannon, David A. "Hugo La Fayette Black as United States Senator.'' Alabama Law Review 36 (Spring 1985): 881-97.
  • Suitts, Steve. Hugo Black of Alabama: How His Roots and Early Career Shaped the Great Champion of the Constitution. Montgomery: New South Books, 2005.
  • U.S. Congress. Memorial Addresses, and Other Tributes in the Congress of the United States on the Life and Contributions of Hugo Lafayette Black. 92 Cong., 1st sess., 1971. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1972.
  • U.S. Supreme Court. In Memoriam, Honorable Hugo Lafayette Black: Proceedings of the Bar and Officers of the Supreme Court of the United States, Proceedings Before the Supreme Court of the United States, Washington, D.C., April 18, 1972. Washington: Supreme Court, 1972.
  • Watson, Elbert L. "Hugo Lafayette Black.'' In Alabama United States Senators, 120-23. Huntsville, AL: Strode Publishers, 1982.