Library of Congress
HOWARD, Jacob Merritt (1805-1871)

HOWARD, JACOB MERRITT, a Representative and a Senator from Michigan; born in Shaftsbury, Bennington County, Vt., July 10, 1805; attended the district schools and the academies of Bennington and Brattleboro; graduated from Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., in 1830; studied law; moved to Detroit, Mich., in 1832; admitted to the bar in 1833 and commenced practice in Detroit; city attorney of Detroit in 1834; member, State house of representatives 1838; elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress (March 4, 1841-March 3, 1843); was not a candidate for renomination in 1842; helped draw up the platform of the first Republican convention in 1854; attorney general of Michigan 1855-1861; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Kinsley S. Bingham; reelected in 1865 and served from January 17, 1862, to March 3, 1871; chairman, Committee on Pacific Railroads (Thirty-eighth through Forty-first Congresses); died in Detroit, Mich., April 2, 1871; interment in Elmwood Cemetery.

Central Michigan University
Clarke Historical Library
Mt. Pleasant, MI
Papers: 1857. 1 letter.

Detroit Public Library
Burton Historical Collection
Detroit, MI
Papers: 1702-1870. 9 boxes, 7 wallets, 20 volumes. Legal, business, and political correspondence; journals (1836-1867); ledgers (1833-1862); law registers (1833-1869); and election data (1865-1871) chiefly relating to his law practice, political activities, and founding of the Republican party.

Duke University
Special Collections Library
Durham, NC
Papers: 1 item. Notes and opinions of the four sections of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, formulated by the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (1866) of which Howard was a member.

Pierpont Morgan Library
New York, NY
Papers: 1865. 1 item.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: In Alpheus Felch papers, 1817-1896; and James M. Edmunds correspondence, 1861-1866.

University of Rochester
Rush Rhees Library
Rochester, NY
Papers: 31 letters by and 6 to Howard (1842-1869) in various collections. Finding aid.

  • Maltz, Earl M. "Radical Politics and Constitutional Theory: Senator Jacob M. Howard of Michigan and the Problem of Reconstruction." Michigan Historical Review 32:1 (Spring 2006): 19-32.
  • Republican Centennial Committee of Shaftsbury [Vermont]. The Story of Shaftsbury, Vermont: With an Account of Jacob Merritt Howard Who Wrote the Resolutions On Which the Republican Party Was Founded. Shaftsbury: Town Republican Centennial Committee, 1954.