MUSKIE, Edmund Sixtus (1914-1996)
Senate Years of Service: 1959-1980

MUSKIE, EDMUND SIXTUS, a Senator from Maine; born in Rumford, Oxford County, Maine, March 28, 1914; attended the public schools; graduated from Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, in 1936, and Cornell University Law School, Ithaca, N.Y., in 1939; admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1939 and Maine bar in 1940; commenced the practice of law in Waterville, Maine, in 1940; during the Second World War enlisted in the United States Navy and served in the Atlantic and Asiatic-Pacific Theaters 1942-1945; member and secretary of Waterville Board of Zoning Adjustment 1948-1955; appointed district director for Maine Office of Price Stabilization 1951-1952; city solicitor of Waterville in 1954; elected to the State house of representatives in 1946, 1948, and 1950, and was Democratic floor leader 1949-1951; Governor of Maine 1955-1959; elected a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1958; reelected in 1964, 1970 and 1976 and served from January 3, 1959, until his resignation on May 7, 1980, to enter the Cabinet; chairman, Committee on the Budget (Ninety-third through Ninety-sixth Congresses); unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1968; Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Jimmy Carter 1980-1981; awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom on January 16, 1981; member, President's Special Review Board ("Tower Commission") 1987; practiced law and was a resident of Washington, D.C., until his death on March 26, 1996; interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.

Bates College
Lewiston, ME
Papers: 1848-1996 (bulk 1914-1996). 2,728 linear feet. Correspondence, diaries, minutes, speeches, memoranda, press releases, legislation, logs, financial papers, scrapbooks, clippings, card files, motion picture films, audiotapes, printed material, memorabilia, photos, and other papers. Includes documentation of youth in Rumford, Maine; studies at Bates College; personal and family life; law practice; career as state representative (1947-1951); director of Maine district of U.S. Office of Price Stabilization (1951-1952); governor (1955-1959); U.S. senator (1959-1980); and U.S. secretary of state (1980-1981); election campaigns (1968, 1972); and activities after leaving public office. There are 1,282 linear feet of U.S. Senate office files (1959-1880); 156.5 linear feet of state offices files (1959-1980); 14.5 linear feet of Washington inner office files (1950-1979); 102.5 linear feet of clippings (1954-1981), available on microfilm; 6 linear feet of secretary of state papers (1978-1981); 12 linear feet of Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission records (1963-1991); 26 linear feet of records (1893-1984) from various residences; 3.5 linear feet of early personal and family records 91931-1954); 1.5 linear feet of military service files (1942-1945); 1.5 linear feet of early public service files (1946-1954); .5 linear foot of Maine legislature files (1945-1953); 61 linear feet of law practice files (1914-1957); 95.5 linear feet of gubernatorial papers; 230.5 linear feet of campaign records 1957-1977); 6 linear feet of scrapbooks (1932-1940 and 1950-1976); 628 audio cassettes (1968-1980) of 1,173 events; ca. 400 reels of audio recordings; 184 reels of motion picture film (1948-1976); 69 videotapes (1970-1988); appointment books (1955-1980); and 21 linear feet of photographs (1910-1990). Finding aid available on line. Congressional Record searchable annotated index of Muskie's public legislative record also available.
Oral History: Ca. 450 interviews. Edmund S. Muskie oral history project documenting his life, career and Maine politics since 1945. Ongoing.

Boise State University Library
Boise, ID
Papers: Correspondence in Frank Church papers, 1941-1984. Finding aid.

Broadcast Pioneers Library
University of Maryland Hornbake Library
College Park, MD
Papers: 52 audiotapes (1968-1975) in Westinghouse Broadcasting Company collection, 1945-1981.

California State Archives
Sacramento, CA
Oral History: Discussed in interview (1987) with Thomas M. Rees.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
New York, NY
Papers: In Henry Beetle Hough papers, 1841-1986; Howard Joseph Samuels campaign papers, 1969-1971; Randolph Godfrey Phillips papers, 1956-1982; and 1 letter in Citizens Committee for the Protection of the Environment records, 1966-1969.

Gerald R. Ford Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: 1974-1977. Correspondence and briefing papers. Finding aid.

Indiana State Library
Indianapolis, IN
Papers: Correspondence in John V. Beamer papers, 1918-1964 (bulk 1951-1959); Richard L. Roudebush papers, 1965-1976; and Winfield K. Denton papers, 1913-1971.

John F. Kennedy Library
Boston, MA
Papers: Correspondence and speech files relating to Muskie's 1972 presidential campaign in Berl Bernhard papers, 1958-1972 (bulk 1958-1963).
Oral History: 111 pages. Permission required to cite or quote.

Maine Historical Society
Portland, ME
Papers: November 2, 1970. 1 speech. Delivered at Cape Elizabeth.

Memphis State University Library
Mississippi Valley Collection
Memphis, TN
Papers: Correspondence in Oscar Clark Carr papers, 1740-1978.

Mississippi State University
Mitchell Memorial Library
Mississippi State, MS
Papers: 1 letter (1969) in the Hodding and Betty Werlain Carter papers.

Nevada Historical Society
Reno, NV
Papers: Correspondence in John V. Ciceu papers, 1962-1965.

Providence College
Phillips Memorial Library
Providence, RI
Papers: 150 items (1971-1974) in Joseph A. Doorley, Jr. papers.

Radcliffe College
Schlesinger Library
Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Dorothy F. Rodgers papers, 1922-1987; Molly Dewson albums, 1861-1962; and Ruth Proskauer Smith papers, 1959-1975.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library
Hyde Park, NY
Papers: Correspondence in James H. Rowe papers, 1924-1983; and speech in Roosevelt family addresses, 1945-1980.

Rutgers University Libraries
Special Collections and University Archives
New Brunswick, NJ
Papers: In New Democratic Coalition of New York records, 1960-1978.

St. John's University
Jamaica, NY
Papers: In James Lane Buckley senatorial personal correspondence, 1973-1975.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Archives Division
Madison, WI
Papers: Correspondence in Joseph R. Starobin papers, 1932-1979.

U.S. Senate
Historical Office
Washington, DC
Oral History: Discussed in interview (June 28-August 30, 1988) with F. Nordy Hoffman, sergeant at arms, 264 pages.

University of Arkansas
Special Collections
Fayetteville, AR
Papers: Correspondence in Clyde Taylor Ellis papers, 1933-1976. Finding aid.

University of Maryland
McKeldin Library
College Park, MD
Papers: Correspondence in Hervey G. Machen papers, 1964-1968.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Correspondence in Stella Brunt Osborn papers, 1916-1983; Margaret Bayne Price papers, 1918-1969; James Kerr Pollock papers, 1920-1968; and in Michigan Citizens for Humphrey and Muskie records, 1968. Finding aid.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library
Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in Hugh Scott papers, 1925-1983. Finding aid.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives
New Haven, CT
Papers: In Max Lerner papers, 1927-1980; Chester Bowles papers, 1924-1973; and John Sylvester Fischer papers, 1907-1980.
Research Libraries Information Network In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Archives, IL; and Winthrop University Library, Rock Hill, SC.

  • Asbell, Bernard. The Senate Nobody Knows. 1978. Reprint. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
  • Barnett, William Lee. "An Analysis of the Rhetorical Effectiveness of the 1972 Presidential Primary Election Campaign of Senator Edmund S. Muskie.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1976.
  • Blomquist, Robert F. "Senator Edmund S. Muskie and the Dawn of Modern American Environmental Law: First Term, 1959-1964." William & Mary Environmental Law & Policy Review 26 (Spring 2002): 509-612.
  • Bundy, McGeorge, and Edmund S. Muskie. Presidential Promises and Performance. Charles C. Moskowitz Memorial Lectures, no. 21. New York: Free Press, 1980.
  • Lippman, Theo, Jr., and Donald J. Hansen. Muskie. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1971.
  • Milazzo, Paul C. "The Environment," in Julian E. Zelizer, ed., The American Congress: The Building of Democracy. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004: 601-615.
  • Muskie, Edmund S. "Congress and National Security.'' Virginia Journal of International Law 28 (Summer 1988): 949-61.
  • ___. Journeys. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1972.
  • ___. "The Role of Congress in Promoting and Controlling Technological Advance.'' George Washington Law Review 36 (July 1968): 1138-49.
  • Muskie, Edmund S., and Bill Brock. What Price Defense? American Enterprise Institute Rational Debate Seminars. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1974.
  • Nevin, David. Muskie of Maine. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • U.S., Congress. Edmund S. Muskie (1914-1996), Late a Senator from Maine: Memorial Tributes in the Congress of the United States. 104th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1996.
  • Webber, David J. Outstanding Environmentalists of Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Capitol Historical Society, 2002.