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Library of Congress
POWELL, Adam Clayton, Jr. (1908-1972)

POWELL, ADAM CLAYTON, JR., a Representative from New York; born in New Haven, Conn., November 29, 1908; attended the public schools of New York City; graduated from Colgate University, Hamilton, N.Y., 1930; graduated from Columbia University, New York, N.Y., 1932; graduated from Shaw University, Raleigh, N.C., 1934; ordained minister; member of the New York, N.Y., city council, 1941; newspaper publisher and editor; journalist; instructor, Columbia University Extension School, 1932-1940; cofounder of the National Negro Congress; member of the New York state, Consumer Division, Office of Price Administration, 1942-1944; member of the Manhattan Civilian Defense 1942-1945; elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-ninth and to the ten succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1945-January 3, 1967); elected as a Democrat to the Ninetieth Congress, but was not sworn in and, pursuant to H.Res. 278, on March 1, 1967, was excluded from membership; elected as a Democrat to the Ninetieth Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by his exclusion but was not sworn in; reelected to the Ninety-first Congress (January 3, 1969-January 3, 1971); unsuccessful candidate for renomination to the Ninety-second Congress in 1970; chairman, Committee on Education and Labor (Eighty-seventh through Eighty-ninth Congresses); died on April 4, 1972, in Miami, Fla.; cremated and ashes scattered over South Bimini in the Bahamas.

American Jewish Historical Society
New York, NY
Papers: In the Charles Schwager Papers, 1909-1948, 0.25 linear foot.
Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.


Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
New York, NY
Papers: In the Edward Costikyan Collection, 1961-1962, 3 letters.
Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell. The letters are from April 12 and 25, 1961, and December 5, 1962. A finding aid is available in the repository.


Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Center
Abilene, KS
Oral Histories and Papers: The following oral history interview include discussion regarding Adam Clayton Powell: James Hagerty and William Rogers. Adam Clayton Powell is also represented in President Eisenhower's papers documenting his cabinet, legislative meetings, and diaries.


Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Adam Clayton Powell is represented in President Ford's congressional papers, as well as in the papers of Robert Hartmann and Edward Hutchinson.


Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum
Austin, TX
Oral Histories and Papers: Adam Clayton Powell is represented in the following oral history interviews: Morris Abram, Horace Busby, S. Douglass Cater, Ramsey Clark, James Farmer, Harry McPherson, Louis Martin, Wilbur Mills, Laurence O'Brien, John Siegenthaler, and Stewart Udall. Papers which document Adam Clayton Powell include President Johnson's telephone conversations and presidential diaries, and in the papers of S. Douglas Cater and Drew Pearson.


John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
Boston, MA
Oral Histories and Papers: Oral history interviews discussing Adam Clayton Powell include: Anthony B. Akers and Howard Petersen. President Kennedy's news conferences and speeches, as well as his public opinion mail from 1963, contain mentions of Adam Clayton Powell.


National Archives and Records Administration
Center for Legislative Archives
Washington, DC
Papers: In the Committee on Education and Labor Records, 80th-89th Congresses, amount unknown.
Adam Clayton Powell served on the Committee on Education and Labor from the 80th through the 89th Congress, however, he was chairman from the 87th-89th congresses.

Papers: In the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs Records, 84th-86th Congresses, amount unknown.
Adam Clayton Powell served on the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs from the 84th-86th Congreses.


New York Public Library
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Library
New York, NY
Photographs: ca. 1935-1969, 109 prints.
Portraits of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., mainly from his congressional years through his exile to Bimini and his return to the U.S. The collection includes views of Powell preaching at the Abyssinian Baptist Church, speaking to UCLA students, at the Lincoln Memorial, holding press conferences, with wife Hazel Scott Powell and their son Adam III, campaigning, surrounded by crowds, attending political functions, blowing out birthday candles, participating in an awards ceremony, and posing with attorneys.


The Nixon Presidential Library & Museum
Yorba Linda, CA
Audiotapes: Adam Clayton Powell is discussed in tape recorded conversations between President Nixon and John Dean on February 28, 1973.


Harry S. Truman Library & Museum
Independence, MO
Papers: Papers which include mention of Adam Clayton Powell are as follows: Edward Folliard, Philleo Nash, David K. Niles, Brigadier General Louis H. Renfrow, and President Eisenhower's White House central files from 1945.


University of Pennsylvania
Special Collections, Van Pelt Library
Philadelphia, PA
Papers: In the Abyssinian Baptist Church Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1957-1959, 6 items.
Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.


Western Reserve Historical Society
Cleveland, OH
Papers: In Cyrus Eaton Papers, 1901-1978, approximately 422 feet.
Persons represented include Adam Clayton Powell. A finding aid is available in the repository.

  • "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr." in Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on House Administration by the Office of History & Preservation, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington: Government Printing Office, 2008.
  • Alexander, E. Curtis. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Black Power Political Educator. New York: ECA Associates, 1983.
  • Brooks, Albert N.D. "Profile of a Fighter." Negro History Bulletin 20 (May 1957).
  • Capeci, Dominic J., Jr. "From Different Liberal Perspectives: Fiorello La Guardia, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and Civil Rights in New York City, 1941-1943." Journal of Negro History 62 (April 1977): 160-73.
  • ___. "From Harlem to Montgomery: The Bus Boycotts and Leadership of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Martin Luther King." Historian 41 (August 1979): 721-37.
  • ___. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
  • Coleman, Emmett. The Rise, Fall, and ...? of Adam Clayton Powell. New York: Bee-Line Books, 1967.
  • Dionisopoulos, P. Allan. Rebellion, Racism, and Representation: The Adam Clayton Powell Case and Its Antecedents. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1970.
  • Gunther, Lenworth A., III. "Flamin' Tongue: The Rise of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., 1908-1941." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1985.
  • Hamilton, Charles V. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: The Political Biography of An American Dilemma. New York: Atheneum, 1991.
  • Hapgood, David. The Purge That Failed: Tammany vs. Powell. New York: Holt, 1959.
  • Haskins, James. Adam Clayton Powell: Portrait of a Marching Black. New York: Dial Press, 1974.
  • Haygood, Wil. King of the Cats: The Life and Times of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1993.
  • Hickey, Neil, and Ed Edwin. Adam Clayton Powell and the Politics of Race. New York: Fleet Publishing Corp., 1965.
  • Jacobs, Andy. The Powell Affair: Freedom Minus One. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.
  • Jacoubek, Robert E. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
  • Kindregan, Charles P. "The Cases of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Julian Bond: The Right of Legislative Bodies to Exclude Members-Elect." Suffolk University Law Review 2 (Winter 1968): 58-80.
  • Kinney, John W. "Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Historical Exposition and Theological Analysis." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1979.
  • Lewis, Claude. Adam Clayton Powell. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, Inc. 1963.
  • McAndrews, Lawrence J. "The Rise and Fall of the Powell Amendment." Griot 12 (Spring 1993): 52-64.
  • Nutting, Charles B. "The Powell Case and Separation of Powers." American Bar Association Journal 54 (May 1968): 503-5.
  • Paris, Peter J. Black Leaders in Conflict: Joseph H. Jackson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Princeton, N.J.: Pilgrim Press, 1978.
  • Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Dial Press, 1971; [Revised Edition], With a New Foreword by Adam Clayton Powell, III. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1994.
  • ___. Keep the Faith, Baby! New York: Triden Press, 1967.
  • ___. Marching Blacks: An Interpretive History of the Rise of the Black Common Man. 1945. Revised, New York: Dial Press, 1973.
  • Reeves, André E. Congressional Committee Chairmen: Three Who Made An Evolution. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993.
  • U.S. Congress. House. "Additional Views of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., on Minority Report.". 79th Cong., 2 sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946.
  • U.S. Congress. House. The New Image in Education: A Prospectus for the Future by the Chairman of the Committee on Education and the Labor, Adam C. Powell. 87th Cong., 2nd sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1962.
  • U.S. Congress. House. Adam Clayton Powell.Hearings, February 8, 14, 16, 1967. 90th Cong., 1st sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967.
  • Weeks, Kent M. Adam Clayton Powell and the Supreme Court. New York: Dunellen, 1971.
  • Wilson, James Q. "Two Negro Politicians: An Interpretation." Midwest Journal of Political Science 4 (November 1960): 346-69.