SCHURZ, Carl (1829-1906)
Senate Years of Service: 1869-1875

SCHURZ, CARL, A Senator from Missouri; born in Liblar, near Cologne, Germany, March 2, 1829; educated at the gymnasium of Cologne and the University of Bonn; having taken part in the German revolutionary movement of 1848, he was compelled to flee from Germany; was a newspaper correspondent in Paris and later taught school in London; immigrated to the United States in 1852 and settled in Philadelphia, Pa.; moved to Watertown, Wis., in 1855; studied law; admitted to the bar and practiced in Milwaukee, Wis.; unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant governor and governor of Wisconsin; appointed Minister to Spain in 1861 but resigned in 1862; during the Civil War was appointed brigadier general of volunteers in the Union Army; engaged in newspaper work after the war in St. Louis, Mo.; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1875; was not a candidate for reelection in 1874; served in the Cabinet of President Rutherford Hayes as Secretary of the Interior 1877-1881; editor of the New York Evening Post 1881-1884; contributor to Harper's Weekly 1892-1898; president of the National Civil Service Reform League 1892-1901; engaged in literary pursuits; died in New York City, May 14, 1906; interment in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, N.Y.

American Jewish Historical Society
Waltham, MA
Papers: 1888. 1 speech. Address at the dedication of Montefiore Home, New York City.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library
New York, NY
Papers: Correspondence in Anderson family papers, 1828-1876; Edward Morse Shepard papers, 1837-1914; Herbert Gardiner Lord letters, 1892-1905; Jay family papers, 1828-1943; Frederick William Holls papers, 1880-1903; William Mason Grosvenor papers, 1828-1916. Source materials for lectures and publications in William Archibald Dunning papers, 1900-1920; and Frederic Bancroft papers, [ca. 1890]-1930.

Cornell University
Rare Books and Manuscript Collections
Ithaca, NY
Papers: Correspondence in Goldwin Smith papers, 1819-1921 (bulk 1844-1915); Civil Service Reform Association records, 1880-1947; and Jacob Gould Schurman papers, 1878-1986.

Harvard University
Houghton Library
Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Fanny Garrison Villard papers, 1857-1928; and Henry Villard papers, 1604-1948 (bulk 1863-1900).

Rutherford B. Hayes Library
Fremont, OH
Papers: 1848-1901. 150 items.

Knox College
Seymour Library
Galesburg, IL
Papers: 1 letter (July 7, 1879) in Donna Workman autograph collection, 1792-1936.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division
Washington, DC
Papers: 1841-1983 (bulk 1860-1906). 229 containers. Correspondence, speeches, articles, clippings, scrapbooks, and printed material. Topics include liberal Republicanism, tariff reduction, civil service reform, anti-imperialism, election campaigns, the Hayes administration, and tenure as secretary of the interior. Available on 119 microfilm reels. Finding aid.
Papers: Correspondence in Nathaniel Prentice Banks papers, 1829-1917; and Charles C. Hart collection, 1476-1942.

Massachusetts Historical Society
Boston, MA
Papers: Ca. 30 items (1861-1899) in various collections including correspondence in Charles Francis Adams papers, 1861-1933; Hale family papers, 1720-1950; and George Fred Williams papers, 1877-1898.

Milwaukee County Historical Society
Milwaukee, WI
Papers: 1864-1929. Ca. 50 items. Correspondence (1894-1909), speeches (1864-1884), and periodicals and articles (1906-1929) relating to Carl Schurz Memorial Association of Wisconsin.

Mississippi State University
Mitchell Memorial Library
Mississippi State, MS
Papers: In the Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana. 1857-2001 (Bulk 1857-1906) 1 cubic foot. Correspondence, chiefly between Schurz and other political leaders including: Abraham Lincoln, John Sherman, Franz Sigel, and many others. Original copies. Also includes photographs, broadsides, and ancillary biographical information.

Missouri Historical Society
St. Louis, MO
Papers: 1859-1935. Ca. 34 items. Also photographs.

Missouri State Archives
Jefferson City, MO
Papers: Miscellaneous items concerning election to Senate in various collections.

New York Public Library
New York, NY
Papers: 1870-1904. 18 letters. Includes correspondence with Horace Greeley.
Papers: Correspondence in Richard Watson Gilder papers, 1855-1916; and ca. 162 items (1872-1906) in various collections.

Pierpont Morgan Library
New York, NY
Papers: 83 items (1860-1897); and 4 letters (1862-1899) on various topics in the Gilder Lehrman collection. Finding aid.

Radcliffe College
Schlesinger Library
Cambridge, MA
Papers: Correspondence and references in Henriette M. Heinzen biographical notes (1940) in commemoration of Fritz Anneke and Mathilde Franzis Anneke; 1 microfilm reel of originals (1857-1907) at State Historical Society of Wisconsin; in Mary Putnam Jacobi papers, 1851-1974 (bulk 1851-1906); and John Graham Brooks papers, 1845-1938.

Rosenbach Museum and Library
Philadelphia, PA
Papers: 1891. 1 volume, 77 pages. Review essay of John F. Nicolay and John Hay's biography of Abraham Lincoln (1890).

State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Archives Division
Madison, WI
Papers: 1857-1907. 4 boxes, 9 volumes, and 1 microfilm reel. In part transcripts and photocopies from originals in Rutherford B. Hayes Library and Library of Congress. Microfilm is of originals in the Universitats-Bibliotek, Muenster, Germany. Includes letters to his family describing his participation in political revolution of 1848-1849, his exile, and his decision to come to America, together with political and literary correspondence and a manuscript of Schurz's Life of Henry Clay (1887).
Papers: Correspondence in Josiah A. Noonan papers, 1834-1880; and Obadiah M. Conover papers, 1842-1924.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: In Jabez Thomas Sunderland papers, 1868-1936; and Henry S. Frieze papers, 1835-1920.

University of Missouri
Western Historical Manuscript Collections
Columbia, MO
Papers: 1872-1916. 3 folders and 2 microfilm reels. Correspondence, chiefly between Schurz, Frederic A. Bancroft, and Schurz's son concerning writing of the elder Shurz's memoirs. Primarily copies of originals in other repositories. Finding aid.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives
New Haven, CT
Papers: 14 microfilm reels of volumes 28-69 (1876-1881) at Library of Congress. Primarily concern service as secretary of the interior during Hayes administration.
Papers: In Farnam family papers, 1721-1941 (bulk 1850-1937); Frost family papers, 1710-1923; William Gilman Thompson autograph collection, 1771-1924; Samuel Bowles papers, 1853-1890; S. Griswold Flagg collection, 1825-1938; Benjamin Butterworth papers, 1857-1908; and Woolsey family papers, 1750-1950 (bulk 1811-1921).
Research Libraries Information Network: In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, IN; Johns Hopkins University Special Collections, Baltimore, MD; Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, NE; New-York Historical Society, New York, NY; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; and University of Rochester, Rush Rhees Library, Rochester, NY.

  • Andrews, Wayne, ed. The Autobiography of Carl Schurz. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961. An abridged version of The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz (1907-1908).
  • Bancroft, Frederic, ed. Speeches, Correspondence and Political Papers of Carl Schurz. 6 vols. 1913. Reprint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.
  • Burlingame, Michael Ashton. "The Early Life of Carl Schurz, 1829-1865.'' Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1971.
  • Cross, Coy F., II. "Carl Schurz: Reformer.'' In Missouri Folk Heroes of the 19th Century, edited by F. Mark McKiernan and Roger D. Launius, pp. 165-80. Independence, MO: Independence Press/Herald Publishing House, 1989.
  • Donner, Barbara. "Carl Schurz and the Civil War.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1933.
  • ___. "Carl Schurz the Diplomat.'' Wisconsin Magazine of History 20 (March 1937): 291-309.
  • ___. "Carl Schurz as Office Seeker.'' Wisconsin Magazine of History 20 (December 1936): 127-42.
  • Easum, Chester V. The Americanization of Carl Schurz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.
  • Fish, Carl Russell. "Carl Schurz--The American.'' Wisconsin Magazine of History 12 (June 1929): 345-58.
  • Fuess, Claude M. Carl Schurz, Reformer: 1829-1906. 1932. Reprint. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1963.
  • Harwood, Glenn Reid. "The Movement for Assimilation: A Critical Analysis of the Rhetoric of Carl Schurz.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1979.
  • Lovett, Clara M. Carl Schurz, 1829-1906: A Biographical Essay and a Selective List of Reading Materials in English. Washington: Library of Congress, 1983.
  • Mahaffey, Joseph H., ed. "Carl Schurz's Letters from the South.'' Georgia Historical Quarterly 35 (September 1951): 222-57.
  • Mowry, Duane, ed. "Letters of Carl Schurz, B. Gratz Brown, James S. Rollins, G.G. Vest et al., Missourians, from the Private Papers and Correspondence of Senator James Rood Doolittle of Wisconsin.'' Missouri Historical Review 11 (191 6/1917): 1-20.
  • Plumb, Ralph. "The Schurz-Hobart Debate--1859.'' Wisconsin Magazine of History 39 (Autumn 1955): 40-43.
  • Schafer, Joseph. Carl Schurz, Militant Liberal. Evansville, WI: Antes Press, 1930.
  • ___, trans. and ed. Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869. 1928. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970. Originally published in Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 30.
  • Schurz, Carl. Abraham Lincoln. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1891.
  • ___. Charles Sumner, An Essay. Edited by Arthur Reed Hogue. 1951. Reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972.
  • ___. Henry Clay. 2 vols. 1887. Reprint of 1899 ed., with new introduction by Glyndon G. Van Deusen. New York: Chelsea House, 1980. Originally published as Life of Henry Clay.
  • ___. The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz. 3 vols. New York: McClure Co., 1907-1908. Vol. 3 includes Frederic Bancroft and William A. Dunning, Sketch of His Life and Public Services.
  • ___. "The Surrender of Rastatt.'' Translated by Joseph Schafer. Wisconsin Magazine of History 12 (March 1929): 239-70.
  • Simms, L. Moody, Jr. "Carl Schurz and the Negro.'' Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 25 (April 1969): 236-38.
  • Terzian, James P. Defender of Human Rights: Carl Schurz. New York: J. Messner, 1965.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Carl Schurz: A Biography. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982.
  • ___. "Carl Schurz Reconsidered.'' Lincoln Herald 83 (Spring 1981): 563-73.
  • ___. "Carl Schurz, the South, and the Politics of Virtue.'' In Before Watergate: Problems of Corruption in American Society, edited by Abraham S. Eisenstadt, Ari Hoogenboom and Hans L. Trefousse, pp. 99-116. Brooklyn: Brooklyn College Press, 1978.
  • ___. "Carl Schurz's 1865 Southern Tour: A Reassessment.'' In Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies vol. 2, edited by Jack Salzman, pp. 293-308. New York: Burt Franklin & Co., 1976.
  • Wersich, Rudiger, ed. Carl Schurz: Revolutionary and Statesman: His Life in Personal and Official Documents with Illustrations. Munich: Moos, 1979.
  • Wittke, Carl. "Carl Schurz and Rutherford B. Hayes.'' Ohio Historical Quarterly 65 (October 1956): 337-55.