TAYLOR, John (1753-1824)

TAYLOR, JOHN, a Senator from Virginia known as 'John Taylor of Caroline' to distinguish him from others of the same name; born in either Orange or Caroline County, Va., probably on December 19, 1753; educated by private tutors; studied at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., 1770-1772; studied law; admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Caroline County in 1774; served in the Revolutionary War as major and colonel; member, State house of delegates 1779-1785, with the exception of 1782, and 1796-1800; retired from the practice of law and engaged in agricultural pursuits; elected in 1792 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Richard Henry Lee; reelected in 1793 and served from October 18, 1792, until his resignation on May 11, 1794; presidential elector in 1797; appointed to the United States Senate as a Democratic Republican to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Stevens T. Mason and served from June 4 to December 7, 1803, when a successor was elected; was not a candidate for election to fill the vacancy; elected in 1822 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James Pleasants; reelected as a Crawford Republican in 1823, and served from December 18, 1822, until his death in Caroline County, Va., August 21, 1824; interment on Hazelwood farm, near Port Royal, Caroline County, Va.

Albany Institute of History and Art
Albany, NY
Papers: Correspondence in William Leland Thompson collection, 1663-1900.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division
Washington, DC
Papers: 1778-1784. 4 items.

Pierpont Morgan Library
New York, NY
Papers: 1798. 1 item.

Rutgers University Libraries
Special Collections and University Archives
New Brunswick, NJ
Papers: Correspondence in Samuel L. Mitchell papers, 1794-1827; and William Livingston papers, 1686-1839, on 13 microfilm reels of originals in Massachusetts Historical Society.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library
Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Ca. 60 items. Also miscellaneous items in various collections.

Virginia Historical Society
Richmond, VA
Papers: Miscellaneous items in various collections and photographs.

Virginia State Library and Archives
Richmond, VA
Papers: 1792-1824. 8 miscellaneous items and portrait. Also correspondence in Garnett-Mercer-Hunter family papers, 1713-1853; Tazewell family papers, 1759-1858 and 1756-1931; 2 letters (January 28, 1806 and February 7, 1823) in James M. Garnett papers, 1806-1840; and 2-page biographical sketch of Taylor by Edmund Pendleton, 1800.

  • Bailor, Keith M. "John Taylor of Caroline: Continuity, Change, and Discontinuity in Virginia's Sentiments toward Slavery, 1790-1820.'' Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 75 (July 1967): 290-304.
  • Barton, Tom K. "John Taylor of Caroline: Republicanism in the Kentucky Constitution of 1792.'' Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 73 (April 1975): 105-21.
  • Craven, Avery. "John Taylor and Southern Agriculture.'' Journal of Southern History 4 (May 1938): 137-47.
  • Dauer, Manning J., and Hans Hammond. "John Taylor: Democrat or Aristocrat?'' Journal of Politics 6 (November 1944): 381-403.
  • Dodd, William E. "John Taylor, of Caroline, Prophet of Secession.'' John P. Branch Historical Papers of Randolph-Macon College 2 (June 1908): 214-52.
  • ___, ed. "Letters of John Taylor, of Caroline County, Virginia.'' John P. Branch Historical Papers of Randolph-Macon College 2 (June 1908): 253-353.
  • Drell, Bernard. "John Taylor of Caroline and the Preservation of an Old Social Order.'' Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 46 (October 1938): 285-98.
  • Duke, Maurice. "John Taylor of Caroline, 1753-1824: Notes Toward a Bibliography.'' Early American Literature 6 (Spring 1971): 69-72.
  • Dunlap, Orell Alva. "The Economic Ideas of John Taylor.'' Master's thesis, Duke University, 1934.
  • Foshee, Andrew W. "Jeffersonian Political Economy and the Classical Republican Tradition: Jefferson, Taylor, and the Agrarian Republic.'' History of Political Economy 17 (Winter 1985): 523-50.
  • Grampp, William D. "John Taylor: Economist of Southern Agrarianism.'' Southern Economic Journal 11 (January 1945): 255-68.
  • Harp, Gillis, J. "Taylor, Calhoun, and the Decline of a Theory of Political Disharmony.'' Journal of the History of Ideas 46 (January-March 1985): 107-20.
  • Hill, C. William, Jr. "Contrasting Themes in the Political Theories of Jefferson, Calhoun, and John Taylor of Caroline.'' Publius 6 (Summer 1976): 73-91.
  • ___. The Political Theory of John Taylor of Caroline. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976.
  • Lytle, Andrew Nelson. "John Taylor and the Political Economy of Agriculture.'' American Review 3 (September 1934): 432-47; (October 1934): 630-43; 4 (November 1934): 84-99.
  • MacLeod, Duncan. "The Political Economy of John Taylor of Caroline.'' Journal of American Studies 14 (December 1980): 387-406.
  • Mudge, Eugene TenBroeck. The Social Philosophy of John Taylor of Caroline: A Study in Jeffersonian Democracy. 1939. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1968.
  • Riven, Audrey A. "John Taylor, John C. Calhoun, and Roger B. Taney: Three Views of States Rights.'' Master's thesis, Vanderbilt University, 1960.
  • Shalhope, Robert E. "The Arator Essays and the `Fallacy of the Prevalent Proof'.'' Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 84 (July 1976): 283-86.
  • ___. John Taylor of Caroline: Pastoral Republican. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1980.
  • Simms, Henry Harrison. Life of John Taylor: The Story of a Brilliant Leader in the Early Virginia States Rights School. Richmond: William Byrd Press, 1932.
  • Stohrer, Freda F. "Arator: A Publishing History.'' Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 88 (October 1980): 442-45.
  • Taylor, John. Arator: Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political, in Sixty-four Numbers. 1813. New ed., edited by Melvin E. Bradford. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1977. A series of essays published in The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six (Washington), December 25, 1810 et seq.
  • ___. Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated. 1820. Facsimile ed. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.
  • ___. Disunion Sentiment in Congress in 1794. Edited by Gaillard Hunt. Washington: W.H. Lowdermilk & Co., 1905.
  • ___. An Inquiry into the Principles and Tendency of Certain Public Measures. Philadelphia: T. Dobson, 1794.
  • ___. An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States. 1814. Reprint, edited by Loren Baritz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1969.
  • ___. New Views of the Constitution of the United States. 1823. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.
  • ___. Tyranny Unmasked. 1822. Reprint, with new introduction by Forrest McDonald. Cumberland, VA: James River Press, 1990.
  • Thompson, Carol L. "John Taylor of Caroline: Forgotten Prophet.''Current History 13 (November 1947): 264-69.
  • Wharton, Leslie. Polity and the Public Good: Conflicting Theories of Republican Government in the New Nation. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1980.
  • Wright, Benjamin F., Jr. "The Philosopher of Jeffersonian Democracy.'' American Political Science Review 22 (November 1928): 870-92.