Library of Congress
VANCE, Zebulon Baird (1830-1894)
Senate Years of Service: 1879-1894

VANCE, ZEBULON BAIRD, (nephew of Robert Brank Vance [1793-1827] and brother of Robert Brank Vance [1828-1899]), a Representative and a Senator from North Carolina; born on Reems Creek, near Asheville, Buncombe County, N.C., May 13, 1830; attended the common schools of Buncombe County, and Washington (Tenn.) College; studied law at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; admitted to the bar in 1852 and commenced practice in Asheville, N.C.; elected prosecuting attorney of Buncombe County in 1852; member, State house of commons 1854; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fifth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Thomas L. Clingman; reelected to the Thirty-sixth Congress and served from December 7, 1858, to March 3, 1861; during the Civil War entered the Confederate Army as a captain and was promoted to the rank of colonel; elected Governor of North Carolina in 1862, and reelected in 1864; removed from office in 1865 when he was arrested and imprisoned in Washington, D.C. for Confederate activities; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in November 1870, but did not present his credentials; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1872; Governor of North Carolina 1876-1878; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1879; reelected in 1884 and 1890, and served from March 4, 1879, until his death; chairman, Committee on Enrolled Bills (Forty-sixth Congress), Committee on Privileges and Elections (Fifty-third Congress); died in Washington, D.C., April 14, 1894; funeral services were held in the Chamber of the United States Senate; interment in Riverside Cemetery, Asheville, N.C.

Brigham Young University
Special Collections
Provo, UT
Papers: January 1, 1863. 1 item. Bond to Harry Clench signed by Vance.

Duke University
Special Collections Library
Durham, NC
Papers: 41 items in Governors' papers, 1765-1914. Finding aid.

East Carolina University
Joyner Library
Greenville, NC
Papers: Correspondence (1878) with George Davis concerning his appointment to North Carolina Supreme Court in George Roundtree papers, 1878, 1921-1925.

Emory University
Robert W. Woodruff Library
Atlanta, GA
Papers: Discussed in John Mitchell Davidson papers, 1851-1960, on 1 microfilm reel.

New-York Historical Society
New York, NY
Papers: 1862-1865. 9 letters. Official correspondence.

North Carolina Division of Archives and History
Raleigh, NC
Papers: 1827-1903. Ca. 6,000 items. Congressional, business, and personal correspondence and papers; diaries; speeches; accounts; and clippings particularly concerning Confederate politics. Correspondence (1851-1878) between Vance and his wife, Harriet Espy Vance, describe antebellum life in Chapel Hill and western North Carolina, and his life as a law student and later as a lawyer in Asheville, NC. Finding aid. Also miscellaneous correspondence in various collections.

Pierpont Morgan Library
New York, NY
Papers: 1878, 1888. 2 items.

University of North Carolina
Southern Historical Collection
Chapel Hill, NC
Papers: 1854-1915. 4 feet. Chiefly political correspondence (1877-1894), Civil War letters, slight personal and business correspondence, photographs, and glass negatives. Finding aid.
Additional Papers: 39-reel microfilm edition of The Papers of Zebulon Vance, edited by Gordon McKinney and Richard McMurry; and additional miscellaneous papers in various collections.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library
Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in Lawrence O'Bryan Branch papers, 1840-1862, on microfilm. Finding aid.

Virginia Historical Society
Richmond, VA
Papers: Miscellaneous items. Finding aid.

Western Carolina University Department of History
The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance
Cullowhee, NC

  • Bromberg, Alan B. " `The Worst Muddle Ever Seen in N.C. Politics': The Farmers' Alliance, the Subtreasury, and Zeb Vance.'' North Carolina Historical Review 56 (January 1979): 19-40.
  • Cannon, Elizabeth Roberts, ed. My Beloved Zebulon: The Correspondence of Zebulon Baird Vance and Harriet Newell Espy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971.
  • Dowd, Clement. Life of Zebulon B. Vance. Charlotte, NC: Observer Printing & Publishing House, 1897.
  • Johnson, Frontis, Gordon McKinney, and Joe A. Mobley, eds. The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance. 2 vols. to date. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 1963-.
  • McKinney, Gordon B. "Zebulon Vance and His Reconstruction of the Civil War in North Carolina." North Carolina Historical Review 75 (January 1998): 69-85.
  • ___. Zeb Vance: North Carolina's Civil War Governor and Gilded Age Political Leader. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • ___, and Richard McMurry, eds. The Papers of Zebulon Vance. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1987. Microfilm. 39 reels and guide.
  • Mobley, Joe A. "Zebulon B. Vance: A Confederate Nationalist in the North Carolina Gubernatorial Election of 1864." North Carolina Historical Review 77 (October 2000): 324-36.
  • ___. "War Governor of the South": North Carolina's Zeb Vance in the Confederacy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005.
  • Shirley, Franklin Ray. Zebulon Vance, Tarheel Spokesman. Charlotte, NC: McNally & Loftin, 1963.
  • Tucker, Glenn. "A Personality Profile: Zeb Vance.'' Civil War Times Illustrated 7 (April 1968): 10-19.
  • ___. Zeb Vance: Champion of Personal Freedom. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1966.
  • U.S. Congress. Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of Zebulon Baird Vance. 53d Cong., 3d. sess., 1894-1895. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1895.
  • Vance, Zebulon B. "Reconstruction in North Carolina.'' In Why the Solid South? or, Reconstruction and Its Results, by Hilary A. Herbert, et al., pp. 70-84. 1890. Reprint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.
  • ___. Sketches of North Carolina. Norfolk: Norfolk Landmark, 1875.
  • Yates, Richard E. The Confederacy and Zeb Vance. Tuscaloosa, AL: Confederate Publishing Co., 1958.
  • ___. "Zebulon B. Vance as War Governor of North Carolina, 1862-1865.'' Journal of Southern History 3 (February 1937): 43-75.