JOHNSON, Hiram Warren (1866-1945)
Senate Years of Service: 1917-1945

JOHNSON, HIRAM WARREN, (son of Grove Lawrence Johnson), a Senator from California; born in Sacramento, Calif., September 2, 1866; attended the public schools and the University of California at Berkeley; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1888 and commenced practice in Sacramento; moved to San Francisco in 1902; active in reform politics and assistant district attorney of San Francisco; one of the founders of the Progressive Party in 1912 and nominee for Vice President of the United States on the Progressive ticket in 1912 with Theodore Roosevelt; Governor of California 1911-1917, when he resigned, having previously been elected Senator; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1916 for the term beginning March 4, 1917, but, preferring to continue as Governor, did not assume his senatorial duties until March 16, 1917; reelected in 1922, 1928, 1934 and again in 1940 and served from March 16, 1917, until his death in the naval hospital at Bethesda, Md., August 6, 1945; chairman, Committee on Cuban Relations (Sixty-sixth Congress), Committee on Patents (Sixty-seventh Congress), Committee on Immigration (Sixty-eighth through Seventy-first Congresses), Committee on Territories and Insular Possessions (Sixty-eighth Congress), and Committee on Commerce (Seventy-first and Seventy-second Congresses); interment in Cyprus Lawn Cemetery, San Francisco, Calif.

California Historical Society
San Francisco, CA
Papers: 1912-1934. 1 folder. Letters to a friend discussing politics, Woodrow Wilson, and California.

California State Archives
Sacramento, CA
Papers: Gubernatorial papers and photograph.

Columbia University
Oral History Project
New York, NY
Oral history: Discussed in interview with Horace M. Albright.

Henry E. Huntington Library
San Marino, CA
Papers: 1913-1927. 26 items.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division
Washington, DC
Papers: Correspondence in Harold L. Ickes papers, 1906 1952; and Roy Wilson Howard papers, 1911-1966.

Stanford University Libraries
Special Collections
Stanford, CA
Papers: In Meyer Lissner papers, 1903-1923 (bulk 1910-1920); Elmer E. Robinson collection, 1765-1982; and Jerbert C. Jones papers, 1903-1954.

University of California, Berkeley
The Bancroft Library
Berkeley, CA
Papers: 1895-1945. 145 boxes and 49 cartons. Correspondence, reports, speeches, press releases, scrapbooks, clippings, film, photographs and memorabilia relating to his political career and leadership of the Progressive party. Includes material on state and national campaigns, legislation, and family correspondence. Finding aid. Also letters in several other collections.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: In Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg papers, 1884-1974; and Laurence Todd papers, 1902-1957. Finding aid.

University of Oregon
Eugene, OR
Papers: 1911-1928. 79 items. Letters to Eustare Culliman on California politics.

University of the Pacific
Holt-Atherton Pacific Center for Western Studies
Stockton, CA
Papers: Correspondence in Charles L. Neumiller papers, 1917-1932.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives
New Haven, CT
Papers: Material on foreign affairs in Edwin Montefiore Borchard papers, 1910-1950. Finding aid.

  • Batman, Richard D. "The Road to the Presidency: Hoover, Johnson, and the California Republican Party, 1920-1924.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1965.
  • Boyle, Peter G. "The Study of an Isolationist: Hiram Johnson.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1970.
  • Burke, Robert E. "A Friendship in Adversity: Burton K. Wheeler and Hiram W. Johnson.'' Montana 36 (Winter 1986): 12-25.
  • ___. "Hiram Johnson's Impressions of William E. Borah.'' Idaho Yesterdays 17 (Spring 1973): 2-11.
  • ___. "The Political Oratory of Hiram Johnson.'' Journal of the West 27 (April 1988): 20-27.
  • ___, ed. The Diary Letters of Hiram Johnson, 1917-1945. 7 vols. New York: Garland Publishing, 1983.
  • Cain, Earl R. "Hiram Johnson: Irreconcilable Isolationist.'' In Landmarks in Western Oratory, edited by David H. Grover, pp. 145-57. University of Wyoming Publications, vol. 34, nos. 1-10, August 7, 1968. Laramie: Graduate School, University of Wyoming, 1968.
  • Davenport, Frederick M. "Did Hughes Snub Johnson?--An Inside Story.'' American Political Science Review 43 (April 1949): 321-32.
  • DeWitt, Howard A. "Hiram Johnson and Early New Deal Diplomacy, 1933-1934.'' California Historical Quarterly 53 (Winter 1974): 377-86.
  • ___. "Hiram Johnson and World War I: A Progressive in Transition.'' Southern California Quarterly 56 (Fall 1974): 295-305.
  • ___. "Hiram W. Johnson and American Foreign Policy, 1917-1941.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 1972.
  • ___. "Hiram W. Johnson and Economic Opposition to Wilsonian Diplomacy: A Note.'' Pacific Historian 19 (Spring 1975): 15-23.
  • ___. "The `New' Harding and American Foreign Policy: Warren G. Harding, Hiram W. Johnson, and Pragmatic Diplomacy.'' Ohio History 86 (Spring l977): 96-114.
  • Finney, Ruth. "Hiram Johnson of California.'' American History Illustrated 1 (November 1966): 20-28.
  • Fitzpatrick, John James, III. "Senator Hiram W. Johnson: A Life History, 1866-1945.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1975.
  • Greenbaum, Fred. "Hiram Johnson and the New Deal.'' Pacific Historian 18 (Fall 1974): 20-35.
  • Hamilton, Marty. "Bull Moose Plays an Encore: Hiram Johnson and the Presidential Campaign of 1932.'' California Historical Society Quarterly 41 (September 1962): 211-21.
  • Lazarowitz, Arlene. "Hiram W. Johnson: The Old Progressive and New Deal Taxation." California History 69 (Winter 1990-91): 342-353; 403-405.
  • Le Pore, Herbert P. "Prelude to Prejudice: Hiram Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, and the California Alien Land Law Controversy of 1913.'' Southern California Quarterly 61 (Spring 1979): 99-110.
  • Liljekvist, Clifford B. "Senator Hiram Johnson.'' Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1953.
  • Lincoln, A. "My Dear Friend and Champion: Letters Between Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson in 1918.'' California Historical Society Quarterly 68 (March 1969): 19-36.
  • ___. "My Dear Governor: Letters Exchanged by Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson.'' California Historical Society Quarterly 38 (September 1959): 229-47.
  • ___. "My Dear Senator: Letters Between Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson in 1917.'' California Historical Society Quarterly 42 (September 1963): 221-39.
  • ___. "Theodore Roosevelt, Hiram Johnson, and the Vice-presidential Nomination of 1912.'' Pacific Historical Review 28 (August 1959): 267-83.
  • Lower, Richard Coke. A Bloc of One: The Political Career of Hiram W. Johnson. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993.
  • ___. "Hiram Johnson: The Making of an Irreconcilable.'' Pacific Historical Review 41 (November 1972): 505-26.
  • McFadden, David W. "Hiram Johnson, Raymond Robins, and the Struggle for an Alternative American Policy toward Bolshevik Russia, 1918.'' Peace Change 18 (January 1993): 50-77.
  • McKee, Irving. "The Background and Early Career of Hiram Warren Johnson, 1866-1910.'' Pacific Historical Review 19 (February 1950): 17-30.
  • Mowry, George Edwin. The California Progressives. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1951.
  • Olin, Spencer C., Jr. California's Prodigal Sons: Hiram Johnson and the Progressives, 1911-1917. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968.
  • ___. "Hiram Johnson, the California Progressives and the Hughes Campaign of 1916.'' Pacific Historical Review 31 (November 1962): 403-12.
  • ___. "Hiram Johnson, The Lincoln-Roosevelt League, and the Election of 1910.'' California Historical Society Quarterly 45 (September 1966): 225-40.
  • U.S. Congress. Memorial Services Held in the House of Representatives and Senate of the United States: Together with Remarks Presented in Eulogy of Hiram Warren Johnson, Late Senator from California. 79th Cong., 2d sess., 1946. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1948.
  • Weatherson, Michael A. Hiram Johnson: Political Revivalist. Lanham: University Press of America, 1995.
  • Weatherson, Michael A., and Hal W. Bochin. Hiram Johnson: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988.
  • ___. Hiram Johnson: Political Revivalist. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995.